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Features of COVID-19 adult patients and the treatment in Indonesia: a retrospective cohort study

Abstract

Background: Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a new disease that causes clinical symptoms that vary from mild to severe. As a new disease, there is no standard treatment for the disease. Several drugs are used to treat COVID-19, most of which were previously used for other diseases, and the efficacy in COVID-19 is not yet known. This study aimed to evaluate COVID-19 therapy in the early phase of the pandemic.

Methods: In this study, we evaluate data on the characteristics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in several hospitals in Indonesia from March until December 2020. We also evaluate the therapy given and the results of the therapy.

Results: Most hospitalized patients in this study were mild to moderate COVID-19 patients. The most common combination therapy was chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin (79.4%). A small number of patients received chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine without Azithromycin (9.3%), and only a few did not get chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine therapy (10.8%). The clinical outcome appeared to be better in the chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin group than in the other groups. The mortality rate was lower in the chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin group (2.6%) compared to those in the chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine group (52%) and the group without chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine (38%). However, the chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin group had better baseline characteristics and received more additional medications, such as oseltamivir, corticosteroid, and levofloxacin, rather than levofloxacin, the other groups.

Conclusion: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Indonesia from March until December 2020 mostly had mild to moderate COVID-19. Most of them received treatment combinations consisting of chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin. The most common combination therapy for hospitalized COVID-19 patients was chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin. The clinical symptom improvement was seen mainly in this group.

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How to Cite

Nugrahaningsih, D. A. A., Purnomo, E., Siswanto, Reviono, Yasmina, A., Prenggono, M. D., Fajari, N. M., Rudiansyah, M., Harsini, Syarif, R. A., & Sholikhah, E. N. (2022). Features of COVID-19 adult patients and the treatment in Indonesia: a retrospective cohort study. Bali Medical Journal, 11(1), 528–539. https://doi.org/10.15562/bmj.v11i1.2810

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