Background: Dermoscopy or dermatoscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic tool in dermatology that identifies the pattern in pigmented lesions such as melasma. Several features commonly found in melasma include brown or gray pigmentation, pigment network, telangiectasis and sparing of follicles and sweat gland openings. This study aimed to describe the dermoscopic features of melasma in Balinese patients.
Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study conducted by Prof. dr. I G. N. G. Ngoerah General Hospital, Bali, using a secondary source in August 2023. Subjects selected with total sampling from the database in January 2021 to July 2023 at Dermatology and Venereology Outpatient Polyclinic who were diagnosed with Melasma. Characteristics obtained were Fitzpatrick skin type, occupation, contraceptive usage, lesion distributions and dermoscopic features using Dermlite DL4 polarized mode on both check and malar area. Data was analyzed descriptively using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.
Results: A total of 23 females with melasma were included in this study. The subjects were mainly Fitzpatrick skin type IV (74%), occupation in indoor activity (87%), not using oral contraceptives (96%), and symmetrical distribution (91%). The dermoscopic features obtained mainly were light brown (100%), irregular pigment network (87%), sparing of follicles and sweat glands opening (95.7%), and irregular pattern of telangiectasis (69.6%).
Conclusion: Using dermoscopy as a diagnostic tool for melasma can clarify the characteristics of melasma lesions in more detail. Further research is needed to determine the sensitivity of dermoscopic features and assess the success of treatment in melasma.